中国给水排水2020年中国城镇污泥处理处置技术与应用高级研讨会 (第十一届)邀请函暨征稿启事
 
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太阳能与窑炉余热高效利用 污泥干化制砖技术 (山东福航新能源环保股份有限公司Tel: 400 0534 995) 孙红波 李科 魏青亮

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核心提示:太阳能与窑炉余热高效利用 污泥干化制砖技术 (山东福航新能源环保股份有限公司Tel: 400 0534 995) 孙红波 李科 魏青亮
青岛欧仁环境科技有限公司

2020年中国无废城市建设及固废资源化利用可持续高质量发展大会
 太阳能与窑炉余热高效利用

污泥干化制砖技术

(山东福航新能源环保股份有限公司Tel: 400 0534 995)

孙红波 李科 魏青亮

摘  要:当前窑炉制砖工艺仍以传统的黏土配料烧制为主,主流工艺为:将黏土、粉煤灰、页岩等按一定比例添加后,通过破碎系统破碎呈粉末状,将水按比例添加搅拌均匀后进行陈化,陈化好的原料送入制砖机进行压制成型,经自动码垛后进入窑炉烧制成品。此生产过程需消耗大量资源及能源,成品烧制需煤粉燃烧产生大量高温烟气进行焙烧,为保证成品砖质量窑炉内烟气降低到一定温度后需引出窑炉,引出窑炉后的高温烟气温度约300℃,为保证厂区尾气处理系统的安全及使用寿命,烟气需要冷却塔降温至约100℃,再进入尾气处理系统,这样大量热量被白白浪费掉。  

为充分利用能源,节约生产成本,在窑炉高温烟气可接入的厂区采用太阳能与窑炉余热综合利用对厂区所在地的市政或生活污泥进行集中干化处理,干化后的污泥含水率大大降低,可作为制砖原材料进行资源化利用,该技术是在当前太阳能污泥干化的基础上,通过开发窑炉余热热能共同加速污泥内水分的蒸发;该工艺符合国家节能减排的政策,在减少能源浪费的同时,还能实现资源的更大价值的利用,满足可持续发展要求,对建设地起到良好的环境效益;该技术工艺以运行成本低、操作简单、污泥含水率低、维护保养容易等特点,得到市场的广泛认可。

关键词:窑炉余热;太阳能;污泥干化;制砖原材料;成品砖;

1、概述

1.1技术介绍

太阳能与窑炉余热综合利用污泥干化制砖技术是以太阳能与窑炉余热为热源,对建设地的市政或生活污泥进行低温干化。该工艺借助传统太阳能温室保温除湿技术,结合自动化远程控制技术,实现对污泥的干化处理,干化后的污泥含水率大大降低,进行粉碎后按一定比例添加作为制砖原材料,循环后的烟气温度降低至100℃以下,可直接进入尾气处理系统处理达标排放,干化过程中车间内产生的气体经管道集中收集后送入除臭虑塔内处理达标排放,产生的废水可回流作为制砖用水,整个过程采用远程自动化控制,无需人员进入现场操作,避免职业病的发生,实现生产的闭环循环。

1.2技术优势

与传统的污泥干化处理工艺相比,其主要优点是:

1、系统利用窑炉余热为主要热源对污泥进行干化,以废制废,属国内首创;

2、系统可解决周边市政、企业等一般固废处理需求,有效改善生态环境;

3、系统运营成本低,污泥处理成本仅为10-30元/吨,经济效益显著;

4、系统自动化程度高、操作简单,安全稳定使用寿命长;

5、系统配有除臭设施,干化后的气体集中处理,达标排放,无二次污染;

6、系统可实现对干化污泥建材利用,实现了污泥的资源化处置;

7、项目利用清洁能源与工业余热为热源降低污泥含水率,同时利用污泥中的热值做为助燃制砖,符合国家相应节能减排政策,满足可持续发展的要求;

2、工艺系统组成及原理分析

2.1工艺系统组成

1、湿污泥输送系统

2、太阳能干化温室系统

3、窑炉余热循环供热系统

4、全自动翻抛布料系统

5、干料收集输送系统

6、原料粉碎、配料成型系统

7、窑炉焙烧系统

8、尾气及臭气处理系统

9、自动化远程控制系统

2.2工艺原理分析说明

湿污泥(含水率60%-80%)经湿泥输送系统设备送入太阳能干化温室,经全自动摊铺布料系统进行自动下料、自动布料、翻抛、平移,并在太阳辐射能及底部窑炉余热平台的作用下水份不断蒸发,污泥含水率降至约30%后经干料输送设备送入原料陈化车间进行陈化。陈化好的干污泥与页岩等配料混合后进行粉碎制砖,砖坯进入窑炉高温焙烧成品砖,制砖过程中持续产生的高温余热则通过风机引出进入散热平台对污泥进行烘干,循环后的烟气温度降低到100℃左右,经引风机送入厂区末端尾气处理系统进行处理达标排放,干化过程中车间内产生的少量臭气经过收集管道集中收集后送入除臭虑塔进行处理,经过滤、喷淋水洗、生物分解等一系列处理将臭气分子进行降解为二氧化碳、水等无害物质,实现气体达标排放,生产过程中产生的废水可循环用于制砖生产用水,真正实现废弃物的资源化利用,产生巨大的经济效益和环境效益。

3、生产工艺流程

3.1工艺流程图

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 太阳能与窑炉余热综合利用污泥干化制砖工艺流程图

3.2工艺流程说明

外运湿污泥→湿污泥输送系统→太阳能温室系统与余热干化平台系统→全自动摊铺布料机系统→干料收集系统→原料粉碎、配料、成型系统→窑炉焙烧系统→成品砖。

(1)湿污泥输送部分可由湿污泥料仓及污泥输送皮带系统组成,污泥通过螺旋输送机、斜皮带机、布料皮带输送机和犁式卸料器将污泥均匀输送至各摊铺布料机的中转料仓,皮带机污泥输送具有操作简单,效率高的优点,也可采用污泥柱塞泵输送,此方式封闭性好适用于含水率高的污泥输送。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

(2)太阳能温室系统由温室主体、冷凝水收集、顶通风系统组成。温室为四顶尖主动式太阳能温室,主骨架、各构件及连接件均为热镀锌材料,顶部及四周覆盖中空阳光板,透光率≥80%,可有效吸收太阳辐射能并持续保温,顶通风为顶部设有天窗用于除湿换气,该干化车间保温除湿效果明显,为污泥干化提供能量。

(3)全自动摊铺布料机系统由螺旋下料机、刮板平移换向系统、物料翻抛系统、湿料强通风系统组成,其原理是通过螺旋喂料机控制物料均匀下料,通过刮板使物料逐渐向一侧移动,将物料均匀得摊铺到干化平台上;通过翻抛系统不断翻新物料上表面,湿料强通风系统增大污泥表面的空气流动,从而不断提高湿物料干化速度。

(4)余热散热平台部分由余热输送管路、引风机、钢板散热平台组成。高温余热经引风机通过输送管路定量输送至钢板散热平台底部的循环烟道,高温余热呈迂回状缓慢通过烟道,通过热传导为平台上方摊铺的污泥干化提供能量,增加水分蒸发速率,干化平台由钢板铺设而成,钢板传热系数高,效率高,使得污泥获得更均匀的热量,从而加速水分的蒸发。

(5)干料收集输送系统是由室内干料收集皮带机、干料集中收集皮带机和干料输送斜皮带机组成,将处理后的污泥集中收集输送至陈化车间内存放。

(6)原料粉碎、配料、成型系统是由粉碎机、配料机、制砖机组成,干化后的污泥含水率大大降低,性质稳定,经粉碎机粉碎后与制砖原材料按10%-20%的比例进行配料,最后进入制砖机压制成品砖。

(7)成品砖经码垛后进入窑炉焙烧系统高温烧制成品砖,期间持续产生高温余热进入干化车间底部干化平台内进行闭环循环,循环后的余热温度降低可直接进入窑炉尾气处理系统处理达标排放,干化过程中车间内产生的气体经管道集中收集送入配套生物除臭系统内处理达标排放。

(8)自动化远程控制系统实现了集中控制方式,操作人员可通过现场监控摄像头实时掌握现场情况,实现一人操控即可实现污泥上料-摊铺干化—干料收料—粉碎、配料、成型-窑炉焙烧整个污泥污泥处理过程,降低干化生产人力投入。

4、工程案例

浙江某太阳能与窑炉余热综合利用污泥干化制砖项目(参观热线:4000534995)

本项目建设在制砖企业生产厂区内,可用高温烟气量约100000m³/h,温度300℃左右,日处理150吨市政污泥,含水率由70%降至40%,干化后的污泥量为75t,按10%-20%的添加比例计算可日生产成品砖约10万块,日节约黏土、粉煤灰、页岩等原材料成本约10000元,经济效益可观,同时解决了当地污泥处理难题,为当地环境质量提升做出贡献,得到当地政府的关注,成为当地的标杆企业。

 

 


                                                                         

 

                             尾气处理

                        

 

 

 

       外运污泥上料             温室及地面加热             摊铺翻抛                            

干污泥输送     

                                                                                                 

 

 

成品砖                        窑炉焙烧                     与黏土、煤灰、配料成型

污泥干化制砖生产工艺流程


5、结束语

随着科技的发展,太阳能作为可再生清洁能源越来越成为人们开发和利用的重要资源,高温烟气的余热被排放到大气中,造成严重能源浪费且给环境带来严重负担。将窑炉余热资源循环利用,即解决了污泥干化能量不足的问题,同时也减轻了资源的浪费和对建设地环境的压力。太阳能与窑炉余热综合利用污泥干化制砖技术实现了开发和利用太阳能与工业余热资源相结合的全新生产模式,使能源得到充分利用,带来巨大的经济效益和环境效益,势必成为未来制砖行业的主流工艺。(交流热线:4009621995)

 
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